How to become a lawyer in Belgium?

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Becoming a lawyer is an esteemed profession that requires dedication, knowledge, and a strong understanding of the legal system. In Belgium, the path to becoming a lawyer is well-defined and involves several stages of education and practical experience. This guide will provide you with a step-by-step overview of the process, including the necessary qualifications, training, and career opportunities in the legal field.

Qualifications for Becoming a Lawyer in Belgium

To embark on the journey of becoming a lawyer in Belgium, certain qualifications are required. These qualifications may vary depending on the specific path you choose to pursue. Below, we will explore three common routes to becoming a lawyer: through the bar association, via an exam in professional competence, or by evaluation through an oral examination.

Route 1: Bar Association and Gerechtelijke Stage

One common path to becoming a lawyer in Belgium is through the bar association and completing the gerechtelijke stage, which is a three-year training program. To be eligible for this route, you must have completed at least one year in a legal profession within the past three years. This could include working as a legal advisor or in a similar role. Once you meet this requirement, you can participate in the admission test for the gerechtelijke stage.

The gerechtelijke stage involves practical training under the guidance of an experienced lawyer, known as a stagemeester. During this period, you will work on your own cases while being supervised by your stagemeester. At the end of the stage, you will need to pass an examination to obtain your bekwaamheidsattest, which is necessary to practice as a lawyer.

Route 2: Exam in Professional Competence

For experienced legal professionals, an alternative route to becoming a lawyer in Belgium is through an exam in professional competence. This option is available to individuals who have a minimum of ten years of experience as an advocate or twelve years of experience in a legal position within the private sector. If you meet these requirements, you can take the exam to enter the legal profession directly.

The exam covers various areas of law, including civil law, criminal law, and a choice between public law, administrative law, tax law, commercial law, or social law. Successful completion of the exam will qualify you to become a lawyer or a magistrate, depending on your chosen path.

Route 3: Oral Evaluation Examination

For seasoned lawyers with extensive experience, an oral evaluation examination is an option to become a lawyer in Belgium. This route is available to individuals who have practiced as an advocate for a minimum of twenty years or fifteen years as an advocate and at least five years in another profession that requires significant legal knowledge. If you meet these criteria, you can participate in the oral evaluation examination.

The examination assesses your knowledge of legal principles, professional ethics, and the practical application of the law. Upon successful completion, you will be eligible for admission as a lawyer.

Training and Education for Aspiring Lawyers

To become a lawyer in Belgium, a solid educational foundation is essential. The required education typically includes obtaining a law degree and additional specialized training.

Law Degree

The first step towards a legal career in Belgium is obtaining a law degree. This typically involves completing a bachelor’s and master’s program in law, which provides a comprehensive understanding of legal principles, legislation, and case law. The bachelor’s program usually lasts three years, while the master’s program requires an additional two years of study.

During your law studies, you will gain knowledge in various areas of law, such as civil law, criminal law, constitutional law, and administrative law. You will also develop crucial skills in legal analysis, research, and argumentation.

Specialized Training

After completing your law degree, additional specialized training is required to become a lawyer. This training includes the gerechtelijke stage for those following the bar association route or further exams for candidates pursuing the exam in professional competence or oral evaluation examination routes.

The gerechtelijke stage provides practical training and guidance under the supervision of an experienced lawyer. During this stage, you will have the opportunity to work on real cases, enhance your legal skills, and gain valuable hands-on experience in various legal fields.

For individuals taking the exam in professional competence or oral evaluation examination route, further training may be necessary to prepare for the respective exams. This training ensures that candidates have a comprehensive understanding of the law and are equipped to handle the responsibilities of a lawyer.

Career Opportunities for Lawyers in Belgium

Becoming a lawyer opens up a world of diverse career opportunities in Belgium. Whether you choose to specialize in a specific area of law or pursue a more general legal practice, the legal profession offers a range of options. Here are some of the career paths available to lawyers in Belgium:


Many lawyers in Belgium pursue a career as an advocate, representing clients in various legal matters. Advocates play a crucial role in the practical application of EU law and handle both national and cross-border legal procedures. They provide legal advice, defend clients’ interests, and draft official documents.

To become an advocate, you must join the bar association and complete the necessary training, such as the gerechtelijke stage. This allows you to practice independently or join a law firm, including international law firms operating in Belgium.


Another career path for lawyers in Belgium is the magistracy, which involves working as a judge or public prosecutor. To become a magistrate, you must fulfill specific requirements, which vary depending on the chosen path. This can include completing a stage, passing entrance exams, or meeting experience criteria.

Magistrates play a vital role in ensuring the fair and efficient administration of justice. They preside over court proceedings, make legal determinations, and uphold the rule of law. Working in the magistracy offers the opportunity to contribute to the legal system and make a significant impact on society.


Some lawyers in Belgium choose to specialize in notarial law and pursue a career as a notary or notary assistant. To become a notary, additional steps are required, including obtaining a Master’s degree in notarial law, completing a three-year internship at a notary office, and passing a comparative examination.

As a notary, you will handle various legal transactions, including property transfers, wills, and family law matters. This role requires attention to detail, precise document drafting, and a deep understanding of notarial procedures.

Private Sector and Other Opportunities

Lawyers in Belgium can also find fulfilling careers in the private sector, government, research, or education. In the private sector, opportunities exist as legal advisors, corporate counsel, or in-house lawyers. Many companies, both national and international, rely on legal expertise to navigate complex legal issues and ensure compliance with regulations.

The government sector offers positions in local municipalities, federal agencies, or international organizations such as the European Commission or the United Nations. Additionally, some lawyers choose to pursue careers in research or academia, contributing to the development and dissemination of legal knowledge.

Becoming a lawyer in Belgium requires dedication, perseverance, and a strong educational foundation. Whether you choose to follow the bar association route, take the exam in professional competence, or undergo an oral evaluation examination, each path offers unique opportunities to contribute to the legal profession.

Through a combination of academic study, practical training, and continuous professional development, aspiring lawyers in Belgium can embark on a fulfilling career in various legal fields. Whether advocating for clients’ rights, upholding justice as a magistrate, or providing legal counsel in the private sector, the legal profession in Belgium offers a wide range of rewarding opportunities.



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