How to Become a Lawyer in Austria?

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Last Updated on January 20, 2024 by Ranking

Becoming a lawyer in Austria requires a thorough understanding of the legal profession and a commitment to completing the necessary education and training. In this guide, we will explore the steps and requirements to become a lawyer in Austria, including the educational path, practical training, and professional qualifications.

1. Introduction to the Legal Profession in Austria

The legal profession in Austria encompasses various roles, including judges, prosecutors, lawyers, notaries, and legal clerks. Each role plays a crucial part in the administration of justice and the protection of individual rights. While judges and prosecutors are responsible for the adjudication and prosecution of cases, lawyers provide legal advice, represent clients in court, and handle various legal matters.

2. Education and Academic Requirements

To become a lawyer in Austria, the first step is to complete a degree in law. The study of law in Austria is typically an eight-semester program, similar to the duration of a law degree in Germany. Unlike in some countries, there is no numerus clausus (NC) or fixed quota for admission to law schools in Austria. Students who reside near the Austrian border and have a strong interest in Austrian law may consider pursuing their law degree in one of the renowned Austrian universities, such as the universities of Salzburg, Linz, Vienna, Graz, or Innsbruck.

3. Practical Training: Konzipientenzeit

After completing the law degree, aspiring lawyers enter the practical training phase known as “Konzipientenzeit.” This phase is divided into four sections, each with its own duration and responsibilities.

3.1. Section 1: Introduction to Practice

The first section of the practical training begins with entry into a law firm and lasts for a minimum of 18 months. During this period, new lawyers familiarize themselves with the internal workings of the law firm, handle case files, and draft legal documents. They may also have the opportunity to interact with clients and gain courtroom experience, depending on the size and nature of the law firm.

3.2. Section 2: Obtaining the Big Legitimation Certificate

The second section starts after obtaining the “big legitimation certificate.” This certificate grants lawyers the authority to represent clients in all courts and before authorities where the involvement of a lawyer is legally required. To be eligible for the big legitimation certificate, lawyers must have completed at least 18 months of practical training and meet specific additional requirements, such as attending training sessions. After obtaining the certificate, lawyers can handle more complex cases and have more autonomy in their work.

3.3. Section 3: Preparation for the Bar Exam

The third section of practical training is dedicated to preparing for the bar exam. To be eligible to take the bar exam, lawyers must have completed a total of three years of practical training, including at least seven months of court experience and two years of work at a law firm. They must also attend a minimum number of training sessions. The bar exam is a comprehensive assessment of legal knowledge and skills, and successfully passing it is a prerequisite for admission to the legal profession.

3.4. Section 4: Bar Exam and Admission to the Legal Profession

The final section of practical training culminates in the bar exam. The bar exam is conducted by a committee of the Higher Regional Court (Oberlandesgericht) and consists of written and oral examinations. It assesses the lawyer’s knowledge in various legal areas and their ability to apply legal principles to real-world cases. Upon successful completion of the bar exam and a positive evaluation by the committee, lawyers are admitted to the legal profession and can practice as fully qualified attorneys.

4. Roles and Responsibilities of Lawyers in Austria

Once admitted to the legal profession, lawyers in Austria have a range of responsibilities and can specialize in different areas of law. They provide legal advice to individuals, businesses, and organizations on various legal matters. Lawyers represent clients in court proceedings, including civil, administrative, and criminal cases. They draft and review contracts, assess legal risks, and advise clients on legal rights and obligations. Lawyers may specialize in areas such as constitutional law, civil law, criminal law, or commercial law, among others.

5. Career Opportunities and Outlook

Lawyers in Austria have various career opportunities available to them. They can work in private law firms, corporations with in-house legal departments, public offices, ministries, business associations, banks, and insurance companies. They may also choose to establish their own law firms and provide legal services independently. The demand for lawyers is expected to increase in the coming years due to retirements in the public sector and the expansion of the justice system. Therefore, pursuing a career in law in Austria can offer promising prospects.

6. Salary and Compensation

The salary and compensation for lawyers in Austria can vary depending on factors such as experience, specialization, and the type of employer. According to the current collective agreements, the minimum starting salary for lawyers is determined by the respective collective bargaining agreements. It is important to note that these figures represent gross salaries and may vary based on individual negotiations and additional benefits offered by employers.

7. Additional Requirements and Professional Development

To maintain their professional status, lawyers in Austria must fulfill certain obligations and engage in continuous professional development. They are required to adhere to professional ethics and conduct, including client confidentiality and conflict of interest rules. Lawyers are also encouraged to participate in further training programs, seminars, and workshops to enhance their knowledge and skills in specific legal areas.


Detailed information


  1. General Information

Admission Requirements

To practice as a lawyer in Austria, candidates must fulfill extensive educational and admission requirements. The basic requirement is the completion of an Austrian law degree program, which typically takes four years to complete. After obtaining the degree, candidates must undergo a five-year practical training period.

  1. Court Practice

Is Court Practice Necessary for Aspiring Lawyers?

Many aspiring lawyers wonder if they should pursue court practice before becoming a legal trainee. While court practice is not a mandatory requirement, it is recommended to begin court practice immediately after completing the law degree. This smooth transition allows aspiring lawyers to gain practical experience and explore the dynamics of the legal profession.

During court practice, candidates have the opportunity to learn from experienced lawyers and judges. They can observe court proceedings, learn how to calculate litigation costs, and gain valuable insights into the legal system. It is advisable to take notes during court practice to capture important lessons and strategies.

  1. “Kleine LU” – § 15 Abs 3 RAO

Requirements for Entry into the List of Legal Trainees

After being hired by a law firm and listed as a legal trainee, candidates receive the “Kleine Legitimationsurkunde” (Kleine LU), which grants them the authority to represent clients in court and other legal proceedings where a lawyer is not mandatory.

To be eligible for entry into the list of legal trainees, candidates must have successfully completed an Austrian law degree program of at least four years. Additionally, they need to submit various documents, such as their birth certificate, proof of citizenship, diploma certificates, a criminal record extract, and a curriculum vitae.

Working Hours and Compensation for Legal Trainees

Legal trainees should expect an average workday of 9 to 10 hours, including a lunch break. The starting time may vary between 8 and 10 am, with the end of the workday typically ranging from 6 to 9 pm. It is important to note that overtime is usually not compensated, and the salary of legal trainees varies depending on negotiations with their training lawyer.

According to a survey conducted by the Upper Austrian Bar Association (OÖRAK), the average monthly salary of legal trainees in Austria ranges from €2,020 to €2,760. It is worth mentioning that some training lawyers cover the chamber contributions of their trainees, while others do not.

Chamber Contributions and Payment

The introduction of the Berufsrechtsänderungsgesetz in 2010 granted legal trainees membership status in the Austrian Bar Associations. As a result, legal trainees are required to pay chamber contributions to support the professional pension and social security funds. These contributions amount to €244.84 per month for the pension fund and an additional annual fee of €256 for chamber membership. Legal trainees are also required to pay an annual fee of €44 for accident insurance, which provides coverage in case of death.

  1. “Große LU” – § 15 Abs 1, 2 RAO

What is “Große LU”?

After successfully completing the legal traineeship and passing the bar exam, candidates become fully qualified lawyers and receive the “Große Legitimationsurkunde” (Große LU). The Große LU grants lawyers the authority to represent clients in all legal matters and establishes their eligibility to establish their own law firm.

  1. Alternative Practical Training

Does Part-Time Employment Count as Training?

Part-time employment can count towards the required practical training period, provided that the trainee meets the necessary work hours. While full-time employment counts towards the core training period, part-time positions can be credited towards “Ersatzzeiten,” which are alternative training periods.

What is “Ersatzzeit”?

“Ersatzzeit” refers to alternative practical training periods that can be credited towards the total training requirement. These periods can include part-time employment, internships, or other relevant legal work experience. The duration of Ersatzzeiten may vary, but they must meet the minimum requirements set by the bar association.

How to Get Credit for Ersatzzeiten

To receive credit for Ersatzzeiten, legal trainees must submit relevant documentation, such as employment contracts, internship certificates, or other proof of legal work experience. The documentation is reviewed by the bar association, which determines whether the alternative training periods fulfill the necessary requirements.

  1. Training Events

Mandatory Training Events for Legal Trainees

Legal trainees are required to participate in various training events organized by the bar association. These events aim to enhance trainees’ practical skills and provide opportunities for networking and professional development. The topics covered in these events include legal practice, professional ethics, and legal technology.

How Training Events are Conducted

Training events are typically conducted through seminars, workshops, and lectures. Experienced legal professionals and experts in specific areas of law are invited to share their knowledge and insights. Trainees are encouraged to actively participate by asking questions and engaging in discussions.

Cost of Training Events

The costs associated with training events are typically covered by the trainee’s training lawyer or law firm. However, this may vary depending on the specific arrangements made between the trainee and the employer.

Taking Leave for Training Events

Legal trainees are entitled to take leave from their regular work duties to attend training events. However, trainees are generally expected to use their vacation days for this purpose.

Recognized Training Events

The bar association recognizes certain training events organized by external providers. These events cover a wide range of legal topics and can be a valuable addition to a trainee’s professional development. Trainees must submit proof of attendance and completion to receive credit for these events.

How to Get Training Events Recognized

To have external training events recognized, legal trainees must submit relevant documentation, such as certificates of attendance, program details, and proof of payment. The bar association reviews the documentation and determines whether the event meets the necessary criteria for recognition.

  1. Changes in the Training Relationship

Switching to Another Training Lawyer

Legal trainees have the option to switch to another training lawyer during their training period. However, there are certain considerations to keep in mind. Trainees must inform their current training lawyer and seek approval from the bar association. Additionally, any accumulated training periods must be transferred to the new training lawyer.

Dealing with Sudden Termination due to Court Practice

In some cases, legal trainees may have to discontinue their training due to sudden termination caused by court practice requirements. In such situations, trainees should seek advice from the bar association to understand their rights and options.

Considerations for Ending the Training Relationship

When the training relationship comes to an end, various factors should be considered. Trainees must ensure that all necessary paperwork and documentation are in order. Additionally, trainees should settle any outstanding financial matters, such as compensation and reimbursement of expenses.

Re-Entry as a Legal Trainee

In certain circumstances, individuals who have previously completed their legal traineeship but did not pass the bar exam may have the opportunity to re-enter the legal trainee program. The specific requirements and procedures for re-entry differ depending on individual circumstances, and it is advisable to consult with the bar association for guidance.

What to Do in Case of Loss of “LU”

If a lawyer loses their “LU” (Legitimationsurkunde), they must take the necessary steps to rectify the situation. This may involve applying for a new “LU” or seeking guidance from the bar association on the appropriate course of action.

  1. Preparing for the Bar Exam

Eligibility for the Bar Exam

To be eligible to sit for the bar exam in Austria, candidates must have completed their legal traineeship and fulfilled all other requirements set by the bar association. It is essential to ensure that all necessary documentation, such as training certificates and proof of practical experience, is in order before applying for the exam.

Exam Dates and Application Process

The bar exam is held on specific dates determined by the bar association. Candidates must carefully review the exam schedule and submit their applications within the specified timeframe. Applications, along with the required documents, should be submitted to the appropriate authority designated by the bar association.

Required Documents for Application

When applying for the bar exam, candidates must provide various documents, including proof of completed legal traineeship, certificates of training events, and a detailed curriculum vitae. It is crucial to carefully review the application requirements and ensure that all necessary documents are included.

Exam Fees and Payment Process

Candidates are required to pay an exam fee to cover the administrative costs associated with the bar exam. The exact amount and payment process may vary depending on the jurisdiction and the bar association. Candidates should consult the relevant authority or the bar association for detailed information on the exam fees and payment process.

Receiving the Exam Schedule

Once the applications are processed, candidates will receive the exam schedule, which outlines the dates, times, and locations of the written and oral exams. It is essential to review the schedule thoroughly and make the necessary preparations.

Influencing the Exam Schedule

Candidates generally have limited influence over the specific exam dates and times. However, they may have the opportunity to request certain accommodations or adjustments based on exceptional circumstances, such as medical conditions or other valid reasons. These requests should be made well in advance and supported by appropriate documentation.

Preparing for the Written Exam

The written exam is a significant component of the bar exam, covering various legal subjects. Candidates should dedicate sufficient time to study and review the relevant legal materials. It is advisable to create a study plan, seek guidance from experienced lawyers or mentors, and utilize available study resources, such as textbooks and online materials.

Details of the Oral Exam

The oral exam is conducted by a board of examiners appointed by the bar association. During the exam, candidates are tested on their practical legal knowledge, problem-solving skills, and ability to present legal arguments. It is essential to prepare thoroughly, practice oral presentations, and review relevant legal cases and precedents.

Is a Partner Required for the Exam?

Candidates are not required to have a partner for the bar exam. The exam is individually assessed, and candidates are evaluated based on their individual performance and knowledge.

Attending Oral Exams as an Observer

In some cases, individuals may be allowed to attend oral exams as observers. This provides an opportunity to gain insights into the exam process and learn from the experiences of other candidates. However, it is essential to follow the rules and guidelines set by the bar association regarding observation.

Withdrawing from the Exam

In exceptional circumstances, candidates may need to withdraw from the bar exam. It is essential to notify the relevant authorities as soon as possible and provide a valid reason for the withdrawal. It may be possible to reschedule the exam for a later date, subject to approval from the bar association.

Understanding Exam Leave

Exam leave refers to the period during which candidates are allowed time off from their regular work duties to prepare for and take the bar exam. The specific duration and conditions of exam leave may vary depending on the employer and the jurisdiction. Candidates should consult their training lawyer or law firm to determine the provisions for exam leave.

  1. The Bar Exam

Board of Examiners

The bar exam is conducted by a board of examiners appointed by the bar association. The board consists of experienced legal professionals and experts in various areas of law. The examiners evaluate candidates’ knowledge, skills, and professional conduct during the written and oral exams.

Subjects Covered in the Written Exam

The written exam covers various legal subjects, including civil law, criminal law, administrative law, constitutional law, and professional ethics. Candidates must demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of these subjects and apply legal principles to solve practical problems.

Subjects Covered in the Oral Exam

The oral exam delves deeper into the practical application of legal knowledge. Candidates may be asked to analyze legal cases, present legal arguments, and demonstrate their ability to apply legal principles to real-world scenarios. The subjects covered in the oral exam may vary depending on the jurisdiction and the specific focus of the examiners.

Oral Exam Format

The oral exam is typically conducted through a series of interviews with the board of examiners. Candidates are presented with legal scenarios or cases and are expected to analyze them, provide legal advice, and defend their positions. The examiners assess candidates’ legal knowledge, analytical skills, and their ability to articulate legal arguments effectively.

Receiving the Exam Results

After completing the bar exam, candidates must wait for the exam results to be released. The exact timeframe for receiving the results may vary, but candidates are typically notified within a few weeks or months. The results are usually provided in written form and may include detailed feedback on individual performance.

Exam Statistics

The bar association may release statistics on the exam results, providing an overview of the pass rates and performance of candidates. These statistics can be useful for future candidates to gauge the level of difficulty and identify areas of focus for exam preparation.

What If You Don’t Pass the Exam?

In case a candidate does not pass the bar exam, they have the opportunity to retake the exam. The specific requirements and procedures for retaking the exam differ depending on the jurisdiction and the bar association. Candidates should review their exam results, seek feedback from the examiners, and develop a comprehensive study plan to improve their chances of success in subsequent attempts.

  1. After the Bar Exam

Enrollment as a Lawyer

After successfully passing the bar exam, candidates become eligible for enrollment as lawyers. They must apply for enrollment to the relevant bar association and submit the required documentation, including their bar exam certificate, proof of practical training, and a completed application form.

Cost of Enrollment

Candidates are required to pay an enrollment fee to cover the administrative costs associated with the enrollment process. The exact amount and payment process may vary depending on the jurisdiction and the bar association. Candidates should consult the relevant authority or the bar association for detailed information on the enrollment fees and payment process.

  1. Additional Questions

This section addresses common additional questions that aspiring lawyers in Austria may have. It provides further clarification on various aspects of the training and admission process.

  1. Recommended Forums

Forums can be valuable resources for aspiring lawyers to connect with experienced professionals, seek advice, and share experiences. This section provides a list of recommended forums where legal trainees and young lawyers can engage in discussions and gain insights from the legal community.

In conclusion, becoming a lawyer in Austria requires a combination of extensive education, practical training, and successfully passing the bar exam. By understanding the admission requirements and following the necessary steps, aspiring lawyers can embark on a rewarding career in the legal profession.

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